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GIS Mapping Description for Eastern Shore of Hovsgol Lake

Batchuluun Gantsetseg

Introduction

Satellite photo of eastern Lake Hovsgol

The conventional methods means of information collection on watershed natural characterization are slow, tedious, and costly sometime imprecate in remote and inaccessible areas. The data collected through aerial and satellite sensing is either visually interpreted or analyzed on the computer for specific resource applications. Normally both visual and computer techniques are employed to tackle the complex problems involving more disciplines. The main advantages of automatic analysis are classification of many resource themes covering a large area in a short time.

A Geographic Information System is a specific information system applied to geographic data and is mainly referred to as a system of hardware, software and procedures designed to support the capture, management, manipulation, analysis, modeling and display of spatially referenced data for solving complex planning and management problems

The Eastern Shore of Lake Hovsgol is mountainous and mostly covered by forest and taiga forest. It is a land of remote locations, vast distances, difficult environment, significant resources and innumerable problems about which it is easy to generalize but not so easy to understand. It is a region that faces multifarious ecological disturbances.

The objectives and methods are described below.

Research Objectives

Methodology

  • Data Preparation and Input
    • Consideration of Map Projections Issues: defining datum, projection type.
    • Satellite Image Processing: image geocoding, mosaicing, and enhancement.
    • Input from Topographic Mapsscanning, georeferencing, mosaicing, screen digitizing of contour lines, forest, water body and river features
  • Data Manipulation
    • Creation of attribute information obtained from forest, water body and river features.
    • Location of GPS points on Remote Sensing data.
  • Data Analysis
    • Classification of Remote Sensing data according to the existing classification of land cover/ vegetation system
    • Verification of vegetation classes with the aid of ground data (GPS points) and other data, such as thematic maps and topographic maps
    • DEM generation from digitized contour lines for terrain topography of the study area, slope and aspect calculation
    • Calculation of Normalized Deference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Landsat ETM+ data
    • Classified vegetation/land cover map overlay with DEM
  • Data output
    • Preparation and integration of attribute information into a spatial database
    • Vegetation/Land cover map

Objectives for 2005

  • To characterize forest and soil types using digital satellite data.
  • To generate application of DEM of Eastern Shore of Lake Hovsgol to thematic mapping and interpretations.
  • To create plant vegetation map with checking ground GPS points.
  • To create the pasture map for study area
  • To create geomorphology, landscape map from Remote Sensing data.
  • To create the maps of transect area for each valley and forest, soil, soil moisture, plant biomass, plant dominant species, forest insects’ distribution and etc maps related to them. (Local detailizing vegetation mapPreliminary)
  • To study research fields relationship under various their characterization on the GIS mapping.

Objectives for 2006

  • To create the maps for transect area for each valley and forest, soil, soil moisture, plant biomass, plant dominant species, forest insects distribution and etc maps related to them. (Local detailizing vegetation mapFinally or improvement maps)
  • To overlap the basic map with results of point study of different research fields.
  • To make the prediction of charactestics for outside of transect area.
  • Design and GIS information database as ARCVIEW project.

Research activities:

  • Design study of the location of the Hövsgöl Lake
  • Input all research fields attribute data to computer and create GIS database
  • Creating image file for the maps, which have prepared by scientists on vegetation, geomorphology and landscape for the study area.
  • Scan the pasture paper map and imported to ENVI
  • Working with other researchers, for GIS mapping of study area.
  • Interpolation and overlap or crossing map
  • Search of spatial regularities between separate landscape properties for transect areas.
  • To reconstruct landscape properties for the partly study areas basing on found spatial regularities.

Methods:

  • The DEM, slope and aspect mapping
    • To scan the toposheets and create image file on 1:100000 scale M47-22, M47-34, M47-46, M47-23, 47-35 and M47-47
    • To import these to ENVI software o To make the georeference for them.
    • To mosaic the image file for study area
    • To import they to ARCVIEW o To digitize contour lines and creat the contour map
    • To import the contour map to ENVI o To create DEM in ENVI.
    • To generate aspect and slope maps based on the DEM.
    • To overlay and map plant cover, nomad land use, valley pasture maps, permafrost conditions, movements of nomads, biodiversity onto the geomorphic map of the basins.
  • The basic GIS mapping
    • To create forest and soil type also pasture land use maps based on the ground truth and satellite image.
    • To generate the landscape and geomorphology maps based on the forest and soil type maps.
  • The relationships GIS mapping for project different research fields.
    • Interpolation map
    • Overlap or crossing map
    • Joint use of map information, table information and diagram or graphs information
  • Development of approaches for prediction of landscape properties in areas neighboring to transects.
    • Search of spatial regularities between separate landscape properties for transect areas.
    • At tempting to reconstruct landscape properties for the partly study areas basing on found spatial regularities.

Research Outputs:

  • Generate GIS database on different research fields
  • Generate GIS database on basic maps for study area.
  • Define the relationships and correlations for research fields
  • Define the future trend of ecological process based on the GIS mapping
  • Integrate Ecosystem Model with the GIS with a grid approach.

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